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Steel structures in which the members are made of steel and are joined by welding, riveting, or bolting. Because of the high strength of steel, these structures are reliable and require less material than other types of structures. Steel structures are distinguished by the diversity of their shapes and by their architectural expressiveness. Fabrication and installation of steel structures are realized through industrial methods. The main disadvantage of steel structures is susceptibility to corrosion, which requires that protective measures, such as the application of special coatings and paints, be taken periodically, thereby increasing service costs.
Reinforced concrete (RC) is a composite material in which concrete's relatively low tensile strength and ductility are counteracted by the inclusion of reinforcement having higher tensile strength and/or ductility. The reinforcement is usually, though not necessarily, steel reinforcing bars (rebar) and is usually embedded passively in the concrete before the concrete sets. Reinforcing schemes are generally designed to resist tensilestresses in particular regions of the concrete that might cause unacceptable cracking and/or structural failure. Modern reinforced concrete can contain varied reinforcing materials made of steel, polymers or alternate composite material in conjunction with rebar or not. Reinforced concrete may also be permanently stressed (in compression), so as to improve the behaviour of the final structure under working loads. In the United States, the most common methods of doing this are known as pre-tensioning and post-tensioning.
Masonry is commonly used for the walls of buildings, retaining walls and buildings. Brick and concrete block are the most common types of masonry in use in industrialized nations and may be either weight-bearing or a veneer. Concrete blocks, especially those with hollow cores, offer various possibilities in masonry construction. They generally provide great compressive strength, and are best suited to structures with light transverse loading when the cores remain unfilled. Filling some or all of the cores with concrete or concrete with steel reinforcement (typically rebar) offers much greater tensile and lateral strength to structures.
Wood framed construction is one of the most popular types of building methods for homes in the United States.It has the following characteristics:
It is light, and allows quick construction with no heavy tools or equipment. Every component can easily be carried by hand - a house essentially becomes a large carpentry job. The main tool is a handheld nail gun.
It is able to adapt itself to any geometric shape, and can be clad with a variety of materials.
There are a huge variety of products and systems tailored to this type of construction.
Every timber frame home structure is made of a few basic components:Studs are vertical wooden members within the walls. Joists are the horizontal wooden beams that support the floors. Rafters are the sloping wooden beams that support the roof. Sheathing are the sheets that are nailed over the studs to connect them securely and form the wall surfaces. Siding is the exterior cladding that covers the walls from the outside
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